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From COGAIN: Communication by Gaze Interaction (hosted by the COGAIN Association)

  • 1Eye Typing / Gaze Writing / Gaze-Controlled Communication Systems

Eye Typing / Gaze Writing / Gaze-Controlled Communication Systems

A list of eye tracking systems that have been used for text entry by gaze or gaze-based communication, with bibliography and related links.


Murphy, R.A. and Basili, A. (1993) Developing the user-system interface for a communications system for ALS patients and others with severe neurological impairments. Designing for Diversity; Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2, 854-858.


See also: Dasher: Write with your eyes

Ward, D. J. & MacKay, D. J. C. Fast hands-free writing by gaze direction. Nature, 418, 838, (2002).
See Eyes Write



Gips, J., Olivieri, C.P., and Tecce, J.J. 1993. Direct control of the computer through electrodes placed around the eyes, in M.J. Smith and G. Salvendy (eds.), Human-Computer Interaction: Applications and Case Studies, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 630-635.

Tecce JJ, Gips J, Olivieri CP, Pok LJ, Consiglio MR. (1998) Eye movement control of computer functions. Int J Psychophysiology 29: 319–325.

EPCOS, EYE-SISTANT & Eye-Letter-Selector

Developed by the same team, a list of publications can be found at

Frietman E.E.E., P.A.O. Tausch. 'An Eye-movement controlled Communication appliance: from Eye-Letter-Selector to Handi-writer.' A Progress and Evaluation Report at request of the Foundation of Multiple Sclerosis, 1978.

Kate, J.H. ten, E.E.E. Frietman, W. Willems, B.M. ter Haar Romeny, E.Tenkink, 1979. Eye-Switch Controlled Communication Aids' in Conference Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Medical & Biological Engineering, Jerusalem, Israel, August 1979.

Kate, J.H. ten, E.E.E. Frietman, F.J.M.L. Stoel, W. Willems, 'Eye-Controlled Communication Aids' in Medical Progress Technology by Springer-Verlag, no.8, 1980, pp. 2-21.

Frietman, E.E.E., F. Bruggeman, C.J. van Spronsen, 1984. Eyeball-Position-controlled Communication System EPCOS, Microprocessing and Microprogramming 14 (3), 173-175.

Frietman, E.E.E., M.M. Joon, G.K. Steenvoorden, 'The detection of eye-ball movements with the EYE-SISTANT' in Theoretical and Applied aspects of Eye Movement Research, Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing Company, 1984, pp. 5-12.

Frietman, E.E.E., J.H. ten Kate, 'Eye communication aids III. Development of an Optic-RAM eye communicator' in Research News, Int. J. Rehab. Research, 12 (1) 1989.

ERICA: the Eye-gaze Response Interface Computer Aid system


Hutchinson, T.E., White, K.P., Martin, W.N., Reichert, K.C. and Frey, L.A. 1989. Human-Computer Interaction Using Eye-Gaze Input, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 19 (6), 1527-1534.

Frey, L.A, White, K. P. JR., Hutchinson, T. E. Eye-Gaze Word Processing, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, vol 20, no. 4, Jyly/August, 1990, 944-950.

Turn on my keypad

Langford, C., Effective Eye-Gaze Input Into Windows, Proc. Eye Tracking Research & Applications Symposium, 2000, 23-27.


Rosen, M and W. Durfee. Preliminary report on EYECOM, an eye-movement system for non-vocal communication. Proceedings of the 5th Conference on Systems and Devices for the Disabled, Houston, l978.


Eulenberg, J.B., King, M.T. and Patterson, H. (1985) Eye-Controlled Communication. Proceedings of Speech Technology '85 - Voice Input and Output Applications, 210-211.


Friedman, M. B., G. Kiliany, M. Dzmura, D. Anderson. 'The Eyetracker Communication System,' Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest, vol. 3, no. 3, 1982. 250-252

Friedman, M.B., Kiliany, G. and Dzmura, M. (1985) An Eye Gaze Controlled Keyboard. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Rehabilitation Engineering, 446-447.



Jacob O. Wobbrock, James Rubinstein, Michael Sawyer, and Andrew T. Duchowski. Not Typing but Writing: Eye-based Text Entry Using Letter-like Gestures. Proceedings of COGAIN 2007, pp. 61-64. File:COGAIN2007Proceedings.pdf
Comparing a gestural means of writing with the eyes to traditional eye-typing on an on-screen keyboard. Significantly adapts and extends the EdgeWrite design for text input to the vagaries of eye-tracking.


Wiesspeiner, G., Lileg, E., Hutten, H.: Eyewriter - a new communication tool for severely handicapped persons. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing 37 (Suppl. 2), Part II: 1346 - 1347 (1999) European Medical & Biological Engineering Conference EMBEC '99, Nov. 4-7, 1999, Vienna (Austria)

E. Lileg, G. Wiesspeiner & H. Hutten (1999) Evaluation of the EOG for communication through eye movements in 10th European Conference on Eye Movements, September 23, 24 and 25, 1999 Utrecht University, the Netherlands. Abstract available at

Eye Word Processor

Yamada and Fukuda, 'Eye Word processor (EWP) and peripheral controller for the ALS Patient', IEEE Proceedings, Vol. 134, Pt. A, No. 4, 1987

FaceControl (Face + Gaze Interface)

(point with gaze and select with facial activations)


See especially WTPC/Publications/Hands-free typing with face and gaze Twitter dave portnoy.


Download and info: Gazetalk

Hansen, J.P., Hansen, D.W., Johansen, A.S., Bringing Gaze-based Interaction Back to Basics in Universal Access In HCI, C. Stephanidis (ed.), Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 2001, p.325-328



Fejtová, M., Fejt, J., & Lhotská, L. (2004). Controlling a PC by eye movements: The MEMREC project. In K. Miesenberger, J. Klaus, W. Zagler, & D. Burger (Eds.), Proceedings of Computers Helping People with Special Needs: 9th International Conference (ICCHP 2004). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 3118, 770-773.

Iwrite (Igraph)

Homepage: Eye Typing: Dwell time free eye typing approaches

Mario Urbina: Conception and evaluation of dwell time free eye typing interfaces. Diploma thesis, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Germany, 2007.

Mario H. Urbina and Anke Huckauf. Dwell time free eye typing approaches. In Proceedings of COGAIN 2007. pp. 65-70. File:COGAIN2007Proceedings.pdf

LC Technologies EyeGaze


Chapman, J.E. 1991. Use of an eye-operated computer system in locked-in syndrome, in Proceedings of the Sixth Annual International Conference on Technology and Persons with Disabilities (CSUN'91), Los Angeles, CA.

Nancy R. Cleveland. 1994. Eyegaze Human-Computer Interface for People with Disabilities. First Automation Technology and Human Performance Conference, Washington, DC, April 7-8, 1994. [1]

See also The Eyegaze Communication System

pEYE / pEYEwrite

Homepage: Eye Typing: Dwell time free eye typing approaches

Huckauf, A. and Urbina, M. 2007. Gazing with pEYE: new concepts in eye typing. In Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization (Tubingen, Germany, July 25 - 27, 2007). APGV '07, vol. 253. ACM Press, New York, NY, 141-141. ACM DOI

SiVHa: Síntesis Visual del Habla

Yolanda Blanco, Maria Cuellar, Arantxa Villanueva, Fernando Lacunza, Rafael Cabeza, Beatriz Marcotegui, SIVHA, Visual Speech Synthesis System, ICSLP'98 Proceedings [2]



Hansen, D. W., Skovsgaard, H. H., Hansen, J. P. and Møllenbach, E. (2008). Noise tolerant selection by gaze-controlled pan and zoom in 3D. Proceedings of the Eye Tracking Research & Applications Symposium (ETRA 2008). ACM, New York, NY, 205-212

A new 3D gaze writing system, see the news at


Homepage: Eye Typing: Dwell time free eye typing approaches

Mario H. Urbina and Anke Huckauf. Dwell time free eye typing approaches. In Proceedings of COGAIN 2007. pp. 65-70. File:COGAIN2007Proceedings.pdf

Symbol Creator

Miniotas, D., Spakov, O., & Evreinov, G. Symbol Creator: An alternative eye-based text entry technique with low demand for screen space. Proceedings of INTERACT 2003. PDF

Quick Glance


Rasmusson, D., Chappell, R., and Trego, M. 1999. Quick Glance: Eye-tracking Access to the Windows95 Operating Environment, in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Technology and Persons with Disabilities (CSUN'99), Los Angeles, CA.

Quikwriting, adapted for eye gaze

Quikwriting (Perlin, UIST 1998) was originally developed for handheld devices but Bee and Andre adapted it for eye gaze

Bee, N. and Andre, E. (2008) Writing with Your Eye: A Dwell Time Free Writing System Adapted to the Nature of Human Eye Gaze. In Perception in Multimodal Dialogue Systems, LNCS 5078/2008, pp. 111-122, Springer. SpringerLink

TE-9100 Nursing System


Computer Keypad


Computer Keypad Not Working

Homepage: UKO-II

Harbusch, K. and Kühn, M. 2003. Towards an adaptive communication aid with text input from ambiguous keyboards. In Proceedings of the Tenth Conference on European Chapter of the Association For Computational Linguistics (EACL 2003) - Volume 2 (Budapest, Hungary, April 12 - 17, 2003). European Chapter Meeting of the ACL. Association for Computational Linguistics, Morristown, NJ, 207-210. PDF

Viserg Eye Mouse / ECKEY

Istance, H.O., Spinner, C. and Howarth, P.A. (1996) Providing motor impaired users with access to standard Graphical User Interface (GUI) software via eye-based interaction, in 1st European Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technologies '96

Istance, H. O., Spinner, C. & Howarth, P. A. Providing motor-impaired users with access to standard graphical user interface (GUI) software via eye-based interaction, Proc. Euro Conf Disability, Virtual Reality & Assoc. Tech (ECDVRAT'96), UK, 1996. PDF

See for more info.



Kahn, D.A., Heynen, J., and Snuggs, G.L. 1999. Eye-Controlled Computing: The VisionKey Experience, in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Technology and Persons with Disabilities (CSUN'99), Los Angeles, CA.


Homepage: Metrovision (select Visioboard link)
See also VISIOBOARD Project home page

CHARLIER J., BUQUET, C., DUBUS, F., HUGEUX, J.P., DEGROC, B. VISIOBOARD: a new gaze command system for handicapped subjects. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 35, 1997. PDF

THOUMIES P., CHARLIER J.R., ALECKI M., D'ERCEVILLE D., HEURTIN A., MATHE J.F., NADEAU G., WIART L. Clinical and functional evaluation of a gaze controlled system for the severely handicapped. Spinal Cord, 36, 1998, 104-109. PDF


See also

  • A general description of eye typing systems and design issues related to them can be found in:
    Päivi Majaranta and Kari-Jouko Räihä, Twenty Years of Eye Typing: Systems and Design Issues. In Proceedings of ETRA 2002, Eye Tracking Research and Applications Symposium 2002, 25-27 March 2002, New Orleans, LA, USA, ACM Press, March 2002, 15-22. PDF, slides
  • See also a book chapter with updated information on eye typing systems
    Majaranta, P. & Räihä, K-J. (2007) Text Entry by Gaze: Utilizing Eye-Tracking. In I.S. MacKenzie & K. Tanaka-Ishii (Eds.), Text entry systems: Mobility, accessibility, universality. pp. 175-187. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann. PDF (draft manuscript version)
  • Majaranta, P. (2009) Text Entry by Eye Gaze. Dissertations in Interactive Technology, number 11, University of Tampere. Also available in Acta Electronica Universitatis Tamperensis; 869. [PDF]
  • Eye Gaze Communication Board for low-tech gaze communication
  • Gaze Interaction Bibliography for more general papers on gaze communication

Please send any additions or corrections to office (at) cogain (dot) org.

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